CORAL REEF CRISIS
Coral Reefs are Critical Essential to the Marine Ecological System
· Ocean covering 71% of Earth's surface and 90% biosphere.
· Coral reefs are the forests of the ocean and the most important component of the marine ecosystem.
· 500 million people worldwide depend upon reefs for food and their livelihoods.
· Coral reefs cover less than 0.1% of the ocean floor and support at least 25% marine habitats.
Coral Reefs are Bleaching and Dying Unprecedentedly
· The Great Barrier Reef lost 50% coral reefs in the past 30 years.
· Globally, 60% coral reefs are expected to be dead and gone in the next 30 years.
What is Coral Bleaching ?
Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues.
Normally, coral polyps live in an endosymbiotic relationship with these algae, which are crucial for the health of the coral and the reef.
The algae provides up to 90 percent of the coral's energy. Bleached corals continue to live but begin to starve after bleaching.
Triggers of Coral Bleaching ?
· Increased water temperature (most commonly due to global warming), or reduced water temperatures
· Oxygen starvation caused by an increase in zooplankton levels as a result of overfishing
· Increased solar irradiance (photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet light)
· Increased sedimentation (due to silt runoff)
· Bacterial infections
· Changes in salinity
· Extreme low tide and exposure
· Cyanide fishing
· Elevated sea levels due to global warming
· Mineral dust from African dust storms caused by drought
· Pollutants such as oxybenzone, butylparaben, octyl methoxycinnamate, or enzacamene: some ingredients (Especially in Sunscreens) that are nonbiodegradable and can wash off of skin
· Ocean acidification due to elevated levels of CO2 caused by air pollution
· Being exposed to Oil or other chemical spills
Threat of Harmful Ingredients in Skin Care
· Traditional skin care with inappropriate ingredients, especially sunscreens, are deadly harmful to coral reefs
· 1 drop of harmful ingredients = 7 pool-sized Coral Bleaching threats