​Three Large-scale and Influential Scientific Researches



Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections

Scientific Research in 2008
4 experimental fields — Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean and Red Sea

8 scientists and researchers​ 
Supported by European Union

4 Harmful Ingredients defined —
1) Oxybenzone
2) Butylparaben
3) Octinoxate
4) 4-methylbenzylidine camphor





Toxicopathological Effects of the Sunscreen UV Filter on Coral Planulae and Cultured Primary Cells and Its Environmental Contamination

Scientific Research in 2015
2 experimental fields — Hawaii and U.S. Virgin Islands

14 scientists and researchers

Supported by Israel Science Foundation & U.S. National Park Service

13 Harmful Ingredients defined —
1) Any form of microplastic sphere or beads
2) Any nanoparticles like zinc oxide or titanium dioxide
3) Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3, BP-3) 
4) Octinoxate (Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate

    Octyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC))
5) 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC)
6) Octocrylene
7) Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) 
8) Methylparaben
9) Ethylparaben
10) Propylparaben
11) Butylparaben
12) Benzylparaben
13) Triclosan





Sunscreen Pollution Analysis

Scientific Research in 2017
1 experimental field — Jellyfish Lake

6 scientists and researchers
Supported by Coral Reef Research Foundation 

​11 Harmful Ingredients defined —
1) Oxybenzone (BP3)
2) Octyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC)
3) Octocrylene (OC)
4) 4-methyl-benzylidene camphor (4MBC)
5) Triclosan
6) Methyl paraben
7) Ethyl paraben
8) Propyl paraben
9) Butyl paraben
10) Benzyl paraben
11) Phenoxyethanol



Total 14 ingredients are listed by these 3 scientific researches, and 4 ingredients are all listed by these 3 scientific researches — 

Oxybenzone, ButylparabenOctinoxate and 4-methylbenzylidine camphor​



Government Policy


Ban 2 Ingredient of Oxybenzone and Octinoxate
Virgin Islands from March 2020.
Hawaii from 2021
Key West of Florida from 2021
The Caribbean island of Bonaire from 2021



Ban non-biodegradable and Permit Mineral-based
Mexican Vacation Spots of Xel-Ha Park, Cozumel's Marine Park, Chankanaab Beach Adventure Park and Xcaret Park
Ban 10 Ingredients
Palau from Jan 2020